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If you are travelling to a foreign country, in particular a tropical region, you will need to be vaccinated against tropical diseases.

The practice offers a full range of vaccinations and advice for patients who are going travelling. Specific travel advice will be given depending upon your destination, and the appropriate prescription given where needed.

Our pre-travel consultations are with experienced General Practitioners who will assess any pre-existing chronic medical conditions and your vaccine requirements.

Travellers should consider the nature of their trip before vaccination, for example someone staying at or visiting only hygienic, air conditioned premises for a few days would have a lower risk of developing an infection than someone travelling extensively to rural areas where hygiene and sanitation may be to a poor standard. When travelling to endemic regions where health risks are considerably higher and medical facilities are limited, pre-travel vaccination is strongly recommended.

Patients should contact the practice at least 6-8 weeks before travelling to ensure vaccinations take full effect prior to travelling. This period of time allows antibodies to be formed protecting you whilst away and for any reactions to the vaccination to subside.

A malaria prevention regime is also available at the practice where appropriate advice and medication will be given for malaria where necessary.

When travelling some travel agents or embassies may tell you that no vaccinations certificates are required when entering the country. Please however be wary of this as you may not be obligated to do so but it is still recommended. 

The practice also provide treatment to patients with travel related illnesses.

  • Vaccines
  • Additional Information
  • Cost
  • Hepatitis A & B combined (Twinrix)
  • 18 years +, 3 dose course
  • £100 per dose
  • Hepatitis A (Avaxim)
  • 2 doses offers 10 years protection
  • £75
  • Hepatitis A paediatric (Vaqta)
  • 12 months – 17 years old, 2 dose course
  • £75 per does
  • Hepatitis B (Energix)
  • 3 dose course, offers 5 years protection
  • £60 per dose
    £180 3 dose course
  • Hepatitis B paediatric (Energix)
  • 3 dose course, offers 5 years protection
  • £60 per dose
    £180 3 dose course
  • Rabies (Rabipur)
  • 3 dose course, offer 2 years protection
  • £85 per dose
  • Typhoid (Typhim Vi)
  • 1 dose offers 3 years protection
  • £70

 

Note: Please allow 48 hours notice for specific vaccinations (Rabies & Japanese Encephalitis)

Intervals between vaccines and doses are recommended. Our Doctor will discuss all of the necessary information with you during your consultation.

Diphtheria is a bacterial disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheria. Diphtheria can be transmitted through contact with contaminated clothing / sheets, close physical contact with infected individuals in crowded situations and via respiratory droplets.

Corynebacterium diphtheria can release an exotoxin which can cause heart damage and infections affecting the throat and air passage, this can go on to cause obstruction of the airway and result in death. Diphtheria is a part of the childhood immunisation program in the UK but boosters may be required when travelling to endemic regions.

Areas of risk include: the Indian sub-continent, South East Asia, Africa and South America.

Diphtheria is usually given as a triple vaccine (Tetanus, Diphtheria & Polio) and a booster dose is recommended after 10 years have lapsed since your last vaccination.

Hepatitis A is caused by a virus and infection is usually associated with poor sanitation and hygiene. Transmission of the virus usually occurs via the consumption of contaminated food products and water and can occur via the faecal-oral route.

Hepatitis A infection is rarely fatal but results in an acute infection of the liver causing flu like symptoms including fever, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, loss of appetite and jaundice.

Areas of risk include: Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

The vaccine is an inactivated vaccine containing viral antigens and 2 doses are required to provide optimal protection, providing protection for 10 years.

Hepatitis B is a blood borne viral infection caused by the Hepatitis B virus. Transmission can be caused by the use of contaminated needles (i.e. sharing drug needles, piercing equipment, tattoo needles), blood products (e.g. donated blood, plasma) and can be transmitted during unprotected sexual contact. The Hepatitis B virus can also survive outside the body so is easy to catch.

The Hepatitis B virus causes infection of the liver. The symptoms initially involve general ill health with loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting but can lead on to cause jaundice and progress to severe liver disease.

Areas of risk include: Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia (including China, Indonesia, Korea, and the Philippines), the Eastern Mediterranean region, South and Western Pacific Islands and certain parts of the Caribbean (including the Dominican Republic and Haiti).

To gain full protection against the Hepatitis B virus for a 5 year period, a 3 dose course is required with the second vaccine being administered 1 week after the first dose and the final dose being given 3 weeks later.

Japanese encephalitis is caused by a viral infection transmitted via mosquito bites. Minimising mosquito bites with use of insect repellents is advised when travelling to endemic regions.

The virus has an incubation period of 5-15 days and the majority of individuals are asymptomatic. However, patients experiencing symptoms may develop severe rigors, fever, headaches, malaise which can progress to the acute encephalitic stage with the development of neck rigidity, hemiparesis, convulsions, mental retardation and can lead to a coma.

Areas of risk are: South East Asia and the Far East.

The most commonly used vaccine is the inactivated vaccine and a 2 dose course is recommended, the length of protection provided is currently unknown.

Malaria is a protozoan infection of red blood cells and is transmitted via a mosquito bite from a mosquito carrying the protozoa (Plasmodium) in its saliva. Minimising mosquito bites with use of insect repellents and mosquito nets at night is advised when travelling to endemic regions.

There are 4 species of Plasmodium which can infect humans (Plasmodium vivax, ovale, malariae and falciparum), with Plasmodium falciparum causing the most severe disease. Symptoms include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, jaundice and can progress to a coma and even death. However, malaria can be cured with the use of prescription drugs, but the length of treatment depends of the severity of disease.

Areas of risk include: Tropical and sub-tropical regions of South America, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.

There are currently 5 prophylaxis regimes available due to drug resistance in different regions. Drugs should be taken prior to travelling, continued during the duration of travel and after you have returned to cover the incubation period. However, malaria prophylaxis is not 100% effective and further precautions as mentioned above should be taken including using insect repellent during the day and mosquito nets at night to prevent infection.

Meningitis can be caused by either bacterial or viral infections and is transmitted via respiratory droplets or via close physical contact with an affected individual.

Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges (membranes or tissue surrounding the brain) and is a potentially life-threatening condition. Symptoms include headache, neck pain, fever, confusion, photophobia and bacterial meningitis is associated with a characteristic purple rash.

Areas of risk include: Sub-Saharan Africa and it is a requirement of the VISA application when travelling to Saudi Arabia.

The Meningitis ACWY vaccine is an inactivated vaccine, affords protection against the A.C.W.Y serogroups and 1 dose of the vaccine provides protection for 3-5 years. A booster dose is recommended after this time period has lapsed.

Polio or poliomyelitis is caused by an enterovirus (Polio virus types 1, 2 and 3) and affects the nervous system. Polio is largely transmitted via the faecal-oral route and outbreaks can occur when exposed to contaminated food or water.

The polio virus enters via the mouth resulting in a primary infection of the intestines but can go on to cause paralysis and is largely referred to as infantile paralysis and 60-70% of cases occur in the under 3’s and 90% of cases occur in the under 5’s. The paralysis resulting from poliomyelitis is irreversible and there is currently no treatment available.

Areas of risk include: Africa, Afghanistan and the Indian sub-continent.

There are two types of polio vaccines available, an inactivated injection or a live attenuated oral vaccine. Polio is usually given as a triple vaccine (Tetanus, Diphtheria & Polio) and a booster dose is recommended after 10 years have lapsed since your last vaccination.

Rabies is a viral infection transmitted via a scratch or bite from an affected animal. Travellers visiting resorts and tourist destinations are usually at low risk of infection.

Rabies is fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms as it is an infection that affects the brain, ultimately resulting is disease of the brain and death. Early symptoms include fever, headache and general weakness. But as the disease progresses symptoms may include insomnia, confusion, partial paralysis, hallucinations, hyper-salivation and fear of water, death usually occurs within days of the onset of these symptoms.

Areas of risk include: The rabies virus can be found worldwide, however, the vaccine is recommended for those exposed to wild and potentially rabid animals.

The vaccine can be administered as either a pre-exposure precaution or post-exposure following an animal bite or scratch to prevent establishment of the infection. The vaccine administered as a pre-exposure precaution requires a 3 dose course and provides protection for 2 years. Travellers who have received the pre-exposure vaccine who have subsequently been bitten or scratched by a potentially rabid animal should still seek medical advice.

Tetanus is a bacterial disease caused by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus can be contracted by exposure to bacterial spores, present in soil worldwide and can enter your system via cuts and grazes which have come into contact with the spores.

Clostridium tetani produces and potent neurotoxin which causes muscular spasm of the jaw, otherwise known as lock jaw and can cause muscle spasm of the back and in a variety of other locations. The toxin can also result in the onset of seizures and can lead to death if treatment is not provided.

Areas of risk: Tetanus spores can be found all over the world therefore all travellers require vaccination as any small cut or scrape can result in exposure to the tetanus spores.

Tetanus vaccine is usually given as a triple vaccine (Tetanus, Diphtheria & Polio) and a booster dose is recommended after 10 years have lapsed since your last vaccination.

Tick borne encephalitis is a viral disease and is transmitted via a bite from an infected tick. Minimising tick bites with use of insect repellents and wearing clothing that covers up the skin as much as possible is advised when travelling to endemic regions.

Tick borne encephalitis is an infection of the central nervous system and symptoms can manifest as encephalitis (affecting the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the meninges, membrane surrounding the brain) or as meningoencephalitis (affecting the brain and meninges).

Areas of risk include: The forest and mountainous regions in Europe (including Austria, Estonia, Latvia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Switzerland, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Bulgaria, Romania, northern Yugoslavia, and Iran). Infection occurs at lower frequency in Denmark, France and southern Sweden.

The vaccine is an inactivated vaccine and requires a 3 dose course to afford 2 years of protection. A booster is recommend once this time period has lapsed.

Tuberculosis is primarily caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans and is a contagious infection of the lungs but can disseminate to other organs. Transmission is via respiratory droplets (coughs, sneezing) or through drinking unpasteurised milk.

The majority of infections can remain asymptomatic or latent for many years but can reactivate resulting in a chronic infection of the lungs. Classic symptoms include a chronic cough, rush coloured sputum, fever, night sweats and weight loss. Infection can quickly become deadly if left untreated.

Areas of risk include: Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and South America.

The BCG vaccine is a part of the childhood vaccination program in the UK so the majority of travellers should be immunised. Booster doses are not recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

Typhoid fever is contracted from eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. All travellers are at risk when travelling to endemic areas, however, in areas where the standard of living, sanitation and food hygiene are high, risk to travellers is low.

Areas of risk include: the Indian sub-continent, Asia, Africa and South America.

The vaccine is an inactivated surface antigen vaccine, given as either a subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. This affords immunity for up to 3 years after which a booster is recommended. Following administration of the vaccine flu-like symptoms can occur which should subside within 1-2 weeks.

Pregnancy

Pregnant women are not routinely administered live vaccines due to potential harm to the unborn child. Both live and inactivated vaccines should only be administered to pregnant women if the risk of infection outweighs the risk to the unborn child.

Immunocompromised Travellers

Patients with a HIV infection may receive certain inactivated vaccines including: Polio, Tetanus, Diphtheria, Typhoid and Hepatitis B. However, immunisation may reach a sub-optimum level and may require re-immunisation. Patients with HIV are not routinely administered live vaccines and should seek medical advice.

Immunosuppressed patients who are undergoing cancer chemotherapy, radiotherapy or receiving immunosuppressive, anti-rejection drugs are unsuitable candidates for live vaccines. Patients may be administered inactivated vaccines but may find a immune response cannot be raised and is therefore ineffective.